JEAIL > Volume 15(1); 2022 > Notes & Comments
Research Paper
Published online: May 30, 2022

Global Internet Access from the Low Earth Orbit: Legal Issues regarding Cybersecurity in Outer Space

Chandaphan Suwijak & Shouping Li
Beijing Institute of Technology School of Law
No. 5th South Zhongguancun Street Haidian, Beijing 100081 P.R. China.

ⓒ Copyright YIJUN Institute of International Law
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original workZuraini Ab Hamid & Mohd Hisham Mohd Kamal is properly cited.

The emergence of global internet access from the low Earth orbit (LEO) comes with cybersecurity vulnerabilities. Under international space law regimes, the concept of cybersecurity in outer space remains ambiguous. Furthermore, cyberattacks affecting the era’s thoroughly segregated computer space systems were unimagined. Cyber borders are not the same as physical borders. Cyberspace does not admit the demarcation of territorial sovereignty, as it is not based on physical location, and assigning territorial sovereignty to cyberspace is time-consuming. This research proposes the concept of a multi-stakeholder international legal regime for space cybersecurity, as establishing cybersecurity standards and risk management mechanisms necessitates technical measures and a regulatory framework. International cooperation is the only way to provide a fully coordinated approach to cyberspace protection which is consistent with the fundamental premise of international cooperation and collaboration in space.

Keywords : Global Internet Access, Small-satellite Constellations, Cybersecurity in Outer Space, Low Earth Orbit

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